They and subsequent researchers developed distinct versions of obsidian hydration method consisting of both empirical rate and intrinsic rate development, thus refining the method.
However, in spite the accurately measured rinds beyond digital optical microscopy employing infrared spectroscopy and nuclear analysis, the traditional empirical age equation produce occasionally satisfactory results but still fail to produce a reliable chronometer.
The thickness of the layer can be determined by microscopic examination of a thin section of the sample cut at right angles to the surface.
In the last ten years, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) has been employed to accurately define the hydration profile.
By modeling the profile of the surface hydrogen concentration versus depth the age determination is reached via equations describing the diffusion process.
Archaeologists recognize this and started creating an Effective Hydration Temperature (EHT) model to track and account for the effects of temperature on hydration, as a function of annual mean temperature, annual temperature range and diurnal temperature range.
Sometimes scholars add in a depth correction factor to account for the temperature of buried artifacts, assuming the underground conditions are significantly different than surface ones--but the effects haven't been researched too much as of yet.