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    This type of surveillance is based on a population, that is, the working public.

    The recorded events are suspected or established diagnoses of occupational illness and injury. Medical surveillance refers to the application of medical tests and procedures to individual workers who may be at risk for occupational morbidity, to determine whether an occupational disorder may be present.

    Second, the collection of incidence and prevalence data allows analysis of trends of occupational disease and injury among different groups, at different places and during different time periods.

    Detecting such trends is useful for determining control and research priorities and strategies, and for evaluating the effectiveness of any interventions undertaken (Baker, Melius and Millar 1988).

    Even when such information is provided, recalling the extent of exposure to multiple agents in a variety of jobs over a working career may be difficult.

    Such a programme is usually undertaken under the auspices of the individuals employer or union.Occupational disease and injury surveillance entails the systematic monitoring of health events in working populations in order to prevent and control occupational hazards and their associated diseases and injuries. Surveillance in occupational health has been more concisely described as counting, evaluating and acting (Landrigan 1989).Occupational disease and injury surveillance has four essential components (Baker, Melius and Millar 1988; Baker 1986). Gather information on cases of occupational diseases and injuries. Surveillance commonly refers to two broad sets of activities in occupational health.An index case of occupational disease or injury is defined as the first ill or injured individual from a given workplace to receive medical care and thereby to draw attention to the existence of a workplace hazard and an additional workplace population at risk.A further purpose of case identification may be to assure that the affected individual receives appropriate clinical follow-up, an important consideration in view of the scarcity of clinical occupational medicine specialists (Markowitz et al. Finally, occupational health surveillance is an important means of discovering new associations between occupational agents and accompanying diseases, since the potential toxicity of most chemicals used in the workplace is not known.

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